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高中英语

Module 6 Unit 3  Grammar

时间:2013/1/25 17:22:29   作者:陆杏颖   来源:千嬴国际手机版|千赢国际官网|千赢国际app |【天天有奖】*>>>   阅读:894   评论:0

高二英语教学案 

Module 6 Unit 3  Grammar(课时4

The Subjunctive Mood 虚拟语气(1)

主备人: 陈佳    二次备课及授课人:

Class Activity(Teaching Plan)

 

 

 


Teaching Aims

1. Enable the students to use unreal conditionals of the present, past or future time.

2. Improve students’ reading and thinking abilities and the ability of using unreal conditionals

key and difficult points

Learn when and how to use unreal conditionals correctly.

Teaching procedures

Step One: 语气简述

1. 谓语动词的语气是用来表示说话人对所讲内容的态度、看法以及心情等

2. 英文句子中谓语动词的语气有三种:

 1直陈语气:用于直截了当地陈述事实、描述状态:
  He has published quite a number of essays this year .
他今年已发表了好几篇论文。

 2祈使语气:用于提出请求、命令、建议或是劝告等:
Wait outside until you are asked.
请在外面等候,请你进再进去。

 3虚拟语气

表示主观愿望和假设的虚拟情况。

If I had more money, I would buy a bigger apartment.
我要是有再多一点钱,我就买一套更大一些房子。

说话的语气客气、缓和、委婉

I wish you were more careful .但愿你更细心一些。


Step Two:
本单元虚拟语气的掌握目标:

1.      区分真实条件句与非真实条件句。

2.      If 引导的虚拟条件句三种情况。

3.      If 引导的虚拟语气的倒装。

4.      其他一些基本用法

 

Step Three

1. 真实条件句与非真实条件句:

(1) If you stay in the sun too long, you will get sunburned!    (            )

(2) If you study hard and practice a lot, your English will improve. (            )

 (3) If I got married in Italy, I would have to give a present. (           )

(4) If you drink too much whiskey, you will get sick. (            )

(5) If I were you, I would ask my parents for help. (            )

Look at a sentence:

?        You will get sunburned if you stay in the sun too long!

_____________________________________________________________________

 

2. If 引导的虚拟条件句三种情况:

与现在事实相违背
If I were you, I would put her suggestion into account.(事实是:我并不是你)我要是你,我会考虑她的建议的。

句型:If… were/did … ,    …would do … 

Practice:

1. 假如我有更多的时间,我就会学习汉语。

If I ______________I _________________________.

2. 要不是她这么忙,她就会出席今天下午的会议了。

If she _____________ so busy, she __________________the meeting this afternoon.

 

注意点:

1. 主句中would可以用其他情态动词来换。(would intention; plan;   could ability; possibility;  might probability)

2. be动词在表示与现在事实相反的从句中一般用were。在非正式情况下,第一、第三人称后偶尔也用was

如:If he were/ was youhe would go at once.

 

与过去事实相违背
If he had taken my advice, he might not have made such a bad mistake.
(事实是:他没有听我的建议)要是他听进了我的劝告就不会犯这么严重的错误了。

句型:  If had been/done,  would/could/might have done

Practice:

1) 如果他抓紧时间,他本来能赶上那趟火车。

If he_______________(hurry), he _____________________ the train.(catch)

2) 如果你昨天告诉他,他也许会提些建议了。

If you __________________, he _________________________. (make suggestions)

 

注意点:

1. 与过去事实相反的if从句中,还可以用could have done来代替had done,主句不变。

e.g.: If I could have told you about cultural differences between Italy and the UK, I would have.


与未来事实相违背
If I should have a chance to try it, I would do it in another way.
(假设的情况不大可能发生)要是我有机会试一试,我会用另一种方法做的。
Even if they were to fail, they wouldn't lose courage.
(说话人不希望假设的情况发生)即使他们万一失败,他们也不会泄气。

句型: If … were/did/should/were to …,   … would/should/might do …

Practice:

1) 假如我要出国,我就会去中国。

If I ___________________, I _____________________ China.

2) 万一明天下雨,我们的运动会就推迟。

If it _______________ tomorrow, our sports meeting _______________________.

 

注意点:

在表示与将来事实相反的条件句中,只能用should,而不能用wouldcouldmight

如:If it should rain tomorrowwe would not go camping.

(should rain也可以用rainedwere to rain代替)

 

总结:

熟悉并掌握好下面的基本句式:

 

if条件从句

主句

与现在事实相违背

过去式(动词是bewere

Should / would 动词原形

与过去事实相违背

had 过去分词

would / should have 过去分词

与未来事实相违背

1) should 动词原形
2) were
动词不定式
3)
过去式(动词是be也可以用were

would / Should 动词原形

 

3. 条件句中虚拟语气的倒装:

当条件状语从句的谓语部分含有hadshould、或were时,就将这样的词hadshould、或were搬到句首把句子写成倒装句而将连词if省略。例如:
If you were the manager here, what would you do?
 =_______________________________, what would you do?
你若是这里的经理,你会怎么办?
If he should act like that again, he would be fired immediately. =____________________________________, he would be fired immediately. 要是他再那样做,他会被立即解雇的。

If we had time to spare, we would be glad to go to the park=______________________________, we would be glad to go to the park.如果能抽出时间,我们很乐意逛公园。

If it were not for the discovery of electricity, the modern world would experience great inconvenience=________________________________________the modern world would experience great inconvenience.假如没有发现电,现代世界将很不方便。

注意:

如果省略的条件句中的谓语动词是否定形式时,不能用动词的缩略形式.

我们可以说: Were it not for ......., ......... 但不说: Weren’t it for

Practice:

____ she ____ yesterday, she would meet the famous singer today.

A. Hadn’t; left                   B. Had; not left

C. If; didn’t leave             D. Didn’t; leave

More exercise:

1. _____the exam, he would have attend a college.

A. If he passed                 B. Had he passed

C. Were he passed              D. If he should pass

2. _____five minutes earlier, you could have seen them off.

A. If you should arrive           B. If you arrive

C. Had you arrived              D. Should you arrive

3. _____it rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the visit to the Science Museum.

A. Were       B. should         C. would         D. will

 

4.      虚拟语气其他用法:含蓄条件句
有时为了表达的需要,在虚拟语气中并不总是出现if引导的条件句,而通过其他手段来替代条件句.

1)用介词短语替代条件句, 常用介词有with, without, but for.

We couldn't have succeeded without your help (=__________________________).
But for the rain(=____________________)we would have finished the work.

Without air, there would be no life on the earth. 要是没有空气,地球上就不会有生命了。(=__________________________), there would be no life....
But for your help, the little boy would have been drowned.

(=__________________________), the little boy would ......

要是没有你们的帮助,那个小男孩早就淹死了。
We could have done the work better in that case.

要是那样的话,我们本可以把工作干得更好一些的。

2)用一个副词或连词but / otherwise / or等表示虚拟条件和真实情况交织在一句中如

He telephoned to inform me of your birthdayor

(=If ____________________________________) I would have known nothing about it.

There might have been a terrible accident, but he braked the car before it was too late. (= if______________________________________________.)

He would have come to see you earlier but he just came back from his business trip .(本句中的上下文是:but he just came back from his business trip,表示:要是他在家没出差的话)他本来早就来看你了,可他却出差刚刚回来。

But that you helped me, I would have failed in the experiment.

(本句中的上下文是:But that you helped me,表示:要不是有你帮助我)要没有你帮助我,我的试验本做不成功的。

3)  If it were (had been) not for … 要不是

e.g.:  If it were not for peace, we could not be living a happy life today.

     If it had not been for your advice, I would not have accepted the job.

 

Fill in the blanks with the verbs given in the brackets in their proper forms.

1.You didn’t let me drive. If we                    (drive) in turn, you                                 (not get) so tired.

2._______it ________(not be) for your help, I couldn’t have made any progress.

3.Has Mr. Smith recovered now?

 Yes. Who                                 (think) that such a serious illness could be cured?

4._______it __________(rain) tomorrow, the match would be called off.

5.Most of the students felt rather disappointed at the English party. They said that it ___________________ (organize) better.

6.Jean doesn’t want to work right away because she thinks that if ____________________ (get) a job, she probably wouldn’t be able to see her friends very often.

7. Much labour would have been saved if electronic computer _____________       (invent) before.

8.-------Well done, Jack

  ----Thanks. But given more time, I_______________________ (do) it better.

More exercise:

1.      Everything         if Albert hadn’t called the fire brigade.

A. will be destroyed        B. will have been destroyed  

C. would be destroyed      D. would have been destroyed

2. The business is risky. But ______, we would be rich.

A. should we succeed       B. we should succeed

C. might we succeed        D. would we succeed

3. What would have happened, ________, as far as the river bank?

A. Bob had walked farther    B. if Bob should walk farther

C. had Bob walked farther     D. if Bob walked farther

【虚拟语气 练习题

I. 单选题

1. If I ____ where he lived, I ____ a note to him.

A. knew, would                                          B. had known, would have sent 

C. know, would send                                  D. knew, would have sent

2. Mary is ill today. If she _____, she ____ absent from school.

A. were not ill; wouldn't be                         B. had been ill; wouldn't have been

C. had been ill; should have been         D. hadn't been ill; could be

3. If you had enough money, what ________?

A. will you buy                  B. would you buy 

C. would you have bought         D. will you have bought

4. Were I to do it, I ________ it some other way.

A. will do          B. would do                    C. would have done   D. were to do

5. I ________ him the answer ________ possible, but I was so busy then.

A. could tell; if it had been                           B. must have told; were it

C. should have told; had it been                  D. should have told; should it be

6. You didn't take his advice. ________ his advice, you ________ such a mistake.

A. Had you taken; wouldn't have made              B. If you had taken; would make

C. Were you lo take; shouldn’t have made  D. Have you taken; won t have made

7. ---If he_____, he ______ that food.          

--- Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.

A. was warned; would not take                   B. had been warned; would not have taken

C. would be warned; had not taken             D. would have been warned; had not taken

8. I didn't see your sister at the meeting. If she _____, she would have met my brother.

A. has come       B. did come        C. came        D. had come

9. Jane would never have gone to the party ______ that Mary would come to see her.

A. has she known    B. had she known           C. if she know   D. if she has known

10. I didn’t know his telephone number. ____ it, I ____ then.

A. Had I known, would ring him up            

B. Should I know, would have rung him up

C. If I knew; would ring him up                  

D. Had I known; would have rung him up

II. 翻译

1. 如果你听了医生的话,你早就恢复健康了。

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2.如果没有虚拟语气,英语就容易多了。

3.如果她更加努力的话,她就成功了。

——————————————————————————————————

4.万一他不来,你就代替他。

5 如果我是你,我就不回这个电话。

——————————————————————————————————

6 如果我的女儿不忙的话, 她就会来帮助你。

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